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Guides and Handouts

MLA and APA Bibliography Formats—Side by Side

You may also view the MLA and APA - Side By Side guide pdf document as a PDF.

Basic Rules—MLA

Basic Rules—APA

  • The samples found in this handout indicate what information is needed and the correct order of its arrangement.  In most cases where a particular piece of information is not available, either in the print or the electronic source, skip to the next piece of information.  For example, if no author name is given, alphabetize by the title of the piece and use a shortened version of the title for parenthetical citations. 
  • The first line of each entry in your list should be flush left.  Subsequent lines should be indented one-half inch. 
  • All works cited should be double-spaced.
  • Capitalize each word, excepting short prepositions and conjunctions, in the titles of works, and always capitalize the first word of a title.
  • Italicize titles of books, journals, magazines, newspapers, and films. 
  • Use quotation marks around the titles of articles in journals, magazines, and newspapers.  Also use quotation marks for the titles of short stories, book chapters, poems, and songs. 
Identify the medium of publication for each entry (“Print,” “Web,” “DVD,” etc).
  • The samples found in this handout indicate what information is needed and the correct order of its arrangement.  In cases where a particular piece of information is not available, either in the print or the electronic source, skip to the next piece of information.  For example, if no author name is given, alphabetize by the title of the piece and use a shortened version of the title for parenthetical citations. 
  • The first line of each entry in your list should be flush left.  Subsequent lines should be indented one-half inch.  This is also known as the hanging indent.
  • All references should be double-spaced.
  • With the exception journal titles, only capitalize the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.
  • Capitalize each word of a journal title except any short prepositions or conjunction words. Always capitalize the first word of a title.
  • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
  • Italicize titles of books, journals, magazines, newspapers, and films. Do not use quotations in the Reference page.

Sources in Print—MLA

Sources in Print—APA

a book with one author:

Boylan, James Finney.  Getting In.  New York: Warner Books, 1998. Print.

a book with one author:

Boylan, J. F. (1998).  Getting in.  New York, NY: Warner Books.

two books by the same author:

Morrison, Toni.  Jazz.  New York: Knopf, 1992. Print.
---.  Paradise.  New York: Knopf, 1998. Print.

two books by the same author:

Morrison, T. (1992).  Jazz.  New York, NY: Knopf.
Morrison, T. (1998).  Paradise.  New York, NY: Knopf.

a book with more than one author:

Crowley, Thomas J., and Gerald R. North.  Paleoclimatology.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Print.

a book with more than one author (keep the ordering of names as they read on the publication):

Crowley, T. J., & North, G. R. (1991).  Paleoclimatology.  New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

part of a book (such as a work in an anthology):

Daniels, Charlie.  “An Open Letter to the Class of 1996 UNCW.”  The Informed Citizen: Argument and Analysis.  Ed. Wanda Schindley.  Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace, 1997. 32-33. Print.

part of a book (such as a work in an anthology):

Daniels, C. (1997).  An open letter to the class of 1996 UNCW.  In W. Schindley (Ed.), The Informed Citizen: Argument and Analysis (pp. 32-33).  Fort Worth, TX:  Harcourt Brace.

an excerpt from a book that reprints material first published someplace else, such as the Opposing Viewpoints series:

Paglia, Camille. "Madonna Has Liberated American Women."  Excerpted from "Madonna II: Venus of the Radio Waves." The Independent on Sunday Review. (July 21, 1991). Rpt. in Opposing Viewpoints: Women's Rights.  Ed. Fred Whitehead.  San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994.  18-28. Print.

an excerpt from a book that reprints material first published someplace else, such as  the Opposing Viewpoints series:

Paglia, C. (1994).  Madonna has liberated American women. In F. Whitehead (Ed.), Opposing viewpoints: Women's rights (pp. 18-28).  San Diego, CA: Greenhaven.  (Reprinted from Madonna II: Venus of the radio waves, 1991, July 21,  The Independent on Sunday Review).

an article from a reference book:

“Italy.” The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 15th ed.  2000. Print.

an article from a reference book:

Italy. (2000).  In The new encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia (Vol. xx, pp. xxx-xxx).  Chicago, IL:  Encyclopaedia Britannica.

an article in a periodical (newspaper or magazine)

Murphy, Brian.  “Going for Gold Can Wait a Day.”  St. Paul Pioneer Press 1 Feb. 2002: A1+. Print.

Houppert, Karen.  “The Meaning of Muhammad.”  The Nation  4 Feb. 2002: 25-30. Print.

an article in a periodical (newspaper or magazine):

Murphy, B. (2002, February 1). Going for gold can wait a day. St. Paul Pioneer Press, pp. A1, A4.

Houppert, K. (2002, February 4). The meaning of Muhammad. The Nation,xx, 25-30.

an article in a scholarly journal:

Note:  the number following the title of the journal is the volume number.  If the journal uses continuous pagination throughout a particular volume, only volume and year are needed, e.g. PMLA 105 (1990): 505-518.  If each issue of the journal begins on page 1, however, you must also provide the issue number following the volume, e.g. Kansas Quarterly 13.3-4 (1981): 77-80.

an article in a scholarly journal:

Note:  the number following the title of the journal is the volume number.  If the journal uses continuous pagination throughout a particular volume, only volume and pages are needed, e.g. PMLA, 105, 505-518.  If each issue of the journal begins on page 1, however, you must also provide the issue number following the volume, e.g. Kansas Quarterly, 13 (3-4), 77-80.

an article in a scholarly journal that uses continuous pagination:

Winnett, Susan.  “Coming Unstrung: Women, Men, Narrative, and Principles of Pleasure.”  PMLA 105 (1990): 505-518. Print.

an article in a scholarly journal that uses continuous pagination:

Winnett, S. (1990).  Coming unstrung: Women, men, narrative, and principles of pleasure.  PMLA, 105, 505-518.

an article in a scholarly journal that pages each issue separately:

Barthelme, Frederick.  “Architecture.” Kansas Quarterly 13.3-4 (1981): 77-80. Print.

an article in a scholarly journal that pages each issue separately:

Barthelme, F.  (1981).  Architecture.  Kansas Quarterly, 13 (3-4), 77-80.

a work of literary criticism from a collection of criticisms (Gale's Twentieth Century Literary Criticism,  Contemporary Literary Criticism, Poetry for Students, Short Stories for Students, Poetry Criticism, etc.):

Use this format if the text you are quoting is originally from another source and being reprinted in the book:

Roberts, Shelia. "A Confined World: A Rereading of Pauline Smith." World Literature Written in English. 24 (1984): 232-38. Rpt. in  Twentieth Century Literary Criticism. Ed. David Pope. Vol. 25. Detroit: Gale, 1988. 399-402. Print.

Use this format if you are quoting text that was written specifically for the book:

Saunders, Clifford.  Essay on “Piano.”  Poetry for Students.  Ed. Mary K. Ruby.  Vol. 6. Detroit: Gale, 1999.  150-153. Print.

Use this format if the text you are quoting has no specific author:

 “Don’t Look Now.”  Short Stories for Students.  Ed. Jennifer Smith.  Vol. 14.  Detroit: Gale, 2002.  110-118. Print.

 

Electronic Sources—MLA

Electronic Sources—APA

Web Pages

Many Web pages are found by using search engines, e.g. Google, MSN, Dogpile, or Yahoo. Most of the time, access to pages found using a search engine is free and unrestricted.

Web Pages

If a web page does not have all of the information listed that is needed for a complete citation, put as much information down as you can find.

Information needed: Name of author or editor, title of work (italicized if the work is independent, in quotation marks if the work is part of a larger work), title of the overall Web site (italicized), if distinct from the title of work, version or edition, publisher or sponsor of the site, date of publication or last update, the medium of publication (“Web”), and the date of access.

Remember, in most cases where a particular piece of information is not available, skip to the next piece of information.  However, if a source has no sponsor or publisher, use the abbreviation “N.p.” (for “No publisher”) in the sponsor position. If there is no date of publication or update, use “n.d.” (for “no date”) after the sponsor. You should have enough information listed so someone else can easily find that source again.  If the Web site has no title, use a description as a substitute, such as “Home page,” for the title. Do not italicize the description or put it in quotation marks.

MLA does not require that citations include the Web address (URL); however; some instructors may ask you to include them. If this is the case, place the URL at the end of the citation between brackets: < >.

Information needed:Document title or description, the date of publication, and the journal or newspaper title.  Include the digital object identifier (DOI), when a DOI is unavailable include a URL.  Whenever possible, identify the authors of a document as well.

The “official” title of the page is listed in the upper-left corner of the page AFTER you print it out, or in the upper-left corner of the page in the very top blue bar on the screen.  The DOI will be labeled as such and is typically located in the upper-right hand corner of a document.

Remember, in cases where a particular piece of information is not available skip to the next piece of information.  You should have enough information listed so someone else can easily find that source again.

In general, wikis (such as Wikipedia) are not recommended for research, although they may be appropriate for basic information gathering.

Use this example if your web page has an author:

Osterwell, Neil.  Eating Disorders Can Be A Family Trait.   WebMD. 3 March 2000. Web. 14 Jan. 2005.

Use this example if your web page has an author:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, vol. number. doi:0000000/000000000000

Brownlie, D. Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12), 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/0309056071082116

Use this format if your page has NO author listed:

Anorexia Nervosa – Topic Overview.  WebMD. 2005. (This date is listed as the copyright date – no other date is listed.) Web. 14 Jan. 2005. 

With no DOI:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html

Online dictionaries and encyclopedias with no authors listed:
Often, there will not be an author given, if so, simply skip to the next item: the entry title. Provide publication dates if available or specify (n.d.) for no date. When listing the URL, only include the home URL, rather than the full URL.

Feminism. (n.d.) In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com

Use this example if your web page has an author:

Markowitz, R. (2000).  Cultural studies central.  Retrieved February 23, 2002, from Washington Technical University Website:  http://www.culturalstudies.net

Doheny, K. (2009) Celexa for Autism No More Effective Than Placebo at Reducing Repetitive Behaviors, Study Shows. WebMD Health News. June 1, 2009 Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/brain/autism/news/20090601/antidepressant-no-help-for-autism-behaviors

Electronic version of a print book:

Shotton, M.A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/html/index.asp

Online Periodical Article – journal or newspaper from the WWW

If you have an article that was accessed in an online periodical it is also a free resource if it can be accessed by anyone using author’s name and title.   If you access a periodical article using a database accessed through the Inver Hills Library home page, see the instructions below.

Information needed: author, title of article in quotation marks, name of journal/newspaper (in italics), volume number, issue number, or other identifying number, date of publication, number range or total number of pages, paragraphs, or other sections, if numbered, publication medium, date of access. If any of the above information is missing, cite what is available, and use the abbreviation “N.p.” if there is no publisher and “n.d.” if there is no date.

Ratneshar, Romesh.  “Who Will Blink First?”  Time.  14 Apr. 2002.  Web. 20 Apr. 2001.

“Budget Bill Delivered to Governor’s Office.”  StarTribune Online.   22 Feb. 2002. Web. 30 Mar. 2002.

Online Periodical Article – journal, magazine, or newspaper from the WWW

If you are citing a periodical article you accessed from a publication’s website, such as Journal of the American Medical Association (jama.ama-assn.org), Time (www.time.com), or the Star Tribune (www.startribune.com), then use the citation format below.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, vol. number. doi:0000000/000000000000

Brownlie, D. Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12), 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/0309056071082116

 

Online Encyclopedia

Information needed: name of article, name of encyclopedia service, publication medium, date of access.

“Italy.”  Encyclopedia.com. Web. 7 Mar 2002.

With no DOI:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html

Online Government Publication

Information needed: author (U. S. government), government department, sub-department, title, date of publication, publication medium, and date of access.

United States.  Center for Disease Control.  National Center for Infectious Diseases – Division of Global Migration and Quarantine.  Importation of  Pets and Other Animals into the United States.   16 Aug. 2001. Web. 12 April 2002.

Online Government Publication

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdf

Online Periodical Article from a Database Available through Inver Hills Community College Library

When you access a journal or newspaper article from EBSCOhost, InfoTrac or LexisNexis, you are using a subscription database available through the Inver Hills Community College Library. That means the library pays a fee in order for you to use this service, just as you would pay for a magazine subscription delivered to your home. The service uses a web browser to access the articles, but it is not a web site or a web page available to anyone on the World Wide Web.  Only current students, faculty, and staff at Inver Hills Community College are able to use these services.  Use the following guide when citing articles from EBSCOhost, InfoTrac, or LexisNexis.  These examples can also be used for articles found using CINAHL and ProQuest.

To cite a work from a periodical in an online database, include the following information: author’s name, title of article in quotations, title of periodical in italics, volume and issue numbers, date of publication, inclusive pages, name of database, medium of database, and date of access.

Barrera, Rebeca María. “A Case for Bilingual Education.” Scholastic Parent and Child Nov.-Dec. 2004: 72-73. Academic Search Premier.Web. 1 Feb. 2006.

Johnson, Kirk. “The Mountain Lions of Michigan.” Endangered Species Update 19.2 (2002): 27-31. Expanded Academic Index. Web. 26Nov. 2005.

Kolata, Gina. “Scientists Debating Future of Hormone Replacement.” New York Times 23 Oct. 2002, late ed.: A20. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 26 Nov. 2005.

Online Periodical Article from a Database Available through Inver Hills Community College Library

Unlike MLA, it is usually not necessary to include database information.   Instead, the citation is treated as if it were a regular print citation.  The exception to this is information that is very hard to find with the database information.  Examples of this would include discontinued journals, dissertations and documents that were not formally published.

Barrera, R. (2004, November). A Case for Bilingual Education. Scholastic Parent & Child, 12(3), 72-73.

Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3).

McNiel, D. S. (2006). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Master’s thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1434728).

Other Types of Sources—MLA

Other Types of Sources—APA

an interview that you conducted:

Information needed: To cite an interview that you conducted, give the name of the person interviewed, the kind of interview (Personal interview, Telephone interview), and the date.

Mondavi, Robert. Personal interview. 7 Sept. 2001.

an interview that you conducted:

Because personal interviews do not provide recoverable data, interviews are considered to be personal communications and as such are not included in the reference list.  Cite personal interviews in text only.

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).

an advertisement:

Information needed: To cite an advertisement, state the name of the product, company, or institution that is the subject of the advertisement, followed by the descriptive label “Advertisement”, neither italicized nor enclosed in quotation marks.  Conclude with the usual publication information and the medium of publication.

Chanel for Men.  Advertisement.  GQ. Dec. 1993: 125-26. Print.

Staples.  Advertisement. CBS. 3 Dec. 2000. Print.

 

a television show or radio program:

Information needed:A television show or radio program entry usually begins with the title of the episode or segment in quotation marks, followed by the title of the program or series, italicized, followed by any relevant information, including performers (“Perf.”), director (“Dir.”), or narrator (“Narr.”) the network; the local station (if any) and location; the date of broadcast; and the medium (“Television,” “Radio”). For a program you accessed online, after the information about the program give the network, the title of the Web site, the medium (“Web”), and your date of access., the name of the network, call letters and city of the local station, if any, and the broadcast date.

“Yes . . . but Is It Art?” Narr. Morley Safer.  Sixty Minutes.  CBS. WCBS, New York. 19 Sept. 1993. Television.

“Death and Society.” Narr. Joanne Silberner. Weekend Edition Sunday.  Natl. Public Radio. MPR, St. Paul. 25 Jan. 1998. Radio.

a television or radio program:

Safer, M. (Narrator). (1993, September 19). Yes . . . but is it art? [Television series episode]. In J. Smith (Producer), Sixty Minutes. New York: WCBS.

Silberner, J. (Narrator). (1998, January 25). Death and society. [Radio broadcast]. In J. Doe (Producer), Weekend Edition Sunday. St. Paul, MN: MPR.

a film:

Information needed:  A film entry begins with the title, italicized, and includes the director (“Dir.”), lead performers (“Perf.”) the distributor, and the year of release, and the medium (“DVD,” “Film,” Videocassette”).

It’s a Wonderful Life.  Dir. Frank Capra.  Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell.  RKO, 1946.

a film:

Information needed: A film entry begins with the producer followed by the director (this is often the same person).  You also need the date of publication, the title in italics, the medium in brackets, the country of origin and the studio or distributor.

Capra, F.  (Director).  (1946). It’s a wonderful life [Motion picture].  United States:  RKO.

 

a lecture:

Information needed: In a citation of an oral presentation, give the speaker’s name, the title of the presentation in quotation marks (if known), the meeting and the sponsoring organization (if applicable), the location, the date, and the label, such as “Lecture” or “Address.”

Watt, Laurel.  “Introduction to Critical Reading.” Inver Hills Community College.  Inver Grove Heights, MN.  11 March 2002. Lecture.

a lecture:

Because lectures do not provide recoverable data, lectures are considered to be personal communications and as such are not included in the reference list.  Cite lectures in text only.

 

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